19th and early 20th century

Emma , fourth novel by Jane Austen , published in three volumes in Set in Highbury, England, in the early 19th century, the novel centres on Emma Woodhouse , a precocious young woman whose misplaced confidence in her matchmaking abilities occasions several romantic misadventures. According to the narrator:. Emma Woodhouse, handsome, clever, and rich, with a comfortable home and happy disposition , seemed to unite some of the best blessings of existence; and had lived nearly twenty-one years in the world with very little to distress or vex her. The force of the verb seemed is pointed. Emma is indeed beautiful, wealthy, and smart. However, she is also spoiled, meddlesome, and self-deluded. Although she is convinced she will never marry, Emma believes she is an excellent matchmaker.

Dating corona-style leads to love connections, even marriage

And for good reason — for centuries, strategically planned marriages allowed the wealthy and elite to retain their social standing, property and family businesses for generations. Marrying for love was pure fantasy and relegated to works of popular fiction. Respectable behavior and strict courtship rituals were the hallmarks of Victorian romance.

Absolutely no physical contact was allowed until the couple became engaged, and gifts were limited to impersonal gestures like flowers, chocolate or a book.

Mrs. Price soon found out that her efforts at this match-making between Maria me into her room—telling me to take a chair Understanding 19th-Century.

In the early Victorian period disease transmission was largely understood as a matter of inherited susceptibility today’s ‘genetic’ component and individual intemperance ‘lifestyle’ , abetted by climate and location, which were deemed productive of noxious exhalations a version of environmental causation. Water- and air-borne infection was not generally accepted. Thus the edition of Buchan’s Domestic Medicine, with its coloured frontispiece showing the symptoms of smallpox, scarlet fever and measles, listed among the general causes of illness ‘diseased parents’, night air, sedentary habits, anger, wet feet and abrupt changes of temperature.

The causes of fever included injury, bad air, violent emotion, irregular bowels and extremes of heat and cold. Cholera, shortly to be epidemic in many British cities, was said to be caused by rancid or putrid food, by ‘cold fruits’ such as cucumbers and melons, and by passionate fear or rage. Treatments relied heavily on a ‘change of air’ to the coast, for example , together with emetic and laxative purgation and bleeding by cup or leech a traditional remedy only abandoned in mid-century to clear ‘impurities’ from the body.

A limited range of medication was employed, and the power of prayer was regularly invoked. Diseases such as pulmonary tuberculosis often called consumption were endemic; others such as cholera, were frighteningly epidemic. In the morbidity statistics, infectious and respiratory causes predominated the latter owing much to the sulphurous fogs known as pea-soupers.

Male death rates were aggravated by occupational injury and toxic substances, those for women by childbirth and violence. Work-related conditions were often specific: young women match-makers suffered ‘phossy jaw’, an incurable necrosis caused by exposure to phosphorous. In Britain, epidemiological measuring and mapping of mortality and morbidity was one of the first fruits of the Victorian passion for taxonomy, leading to the clear association of pollution and disease, followed by appropriate environmental health measures.

John Walker’s Friction Light

Friction matches gave people the unprecedented ability to light fires quickly and efficiently, changing domestic arrangements and reducing the hours spent trying to light fires using more primitive means. But they also created unprecedented suffering for match-makers: One of the substances used in some of the first friction matches was white phosphorus. A British pharmacist named John Walker invented the match by accident on this day in , according to Today in Science History.

He was working on an experimental paste that might be used in guns. He had a breakthrough when he scraped the wooden instrument he was using to mix the substances in his paste, and it caught fire. Experimentation with these new devices produced the first matches that included white phosphorus, an innovation that was quickly copied.

worked here in the early Nineteen Hundreds She was known as A match maker Bryant & May’s match factory, Fairfield Road, Bow, in the At its height.

Fire was a basis of modern humankind and a catalyst for the expansion of our ancestors beyond the borders of Africa. It gave us the power to survive in harsh environments, process food, an change the shape of the environment we live in. However, that process was still slow, unreliable and dependent upon many conditions rain, wind, low portability. Because of those problems, many scientist, chemist and engineers of the early human civilizations Mesopotamia, Egypt, India, China, Greece and Rome tried to find some way to make fire easy to create, portable and reliable.

Because they lacked the knowledge of the chemistry and physics, their early efforts were unsuccessful. The only relatively successful example of the early control over fire came from 5th century AD China, where sulfur coated wooden sticks was used as a catalyst of creating fire. The basis of the modern match and lighter technology was founded by none other than an alchemist Hennig Brandt in the second half of 17th century, who his entire life dreamed of creating gold from other metals.

During his career he managed to extract pure phosphorus and test his interesting flammable properties. Even though he discarded Phosphor in his alchemic experiments, his notes proved to be an important stepping stone for future generations of inventors. First match was created in by Jean Chancel in Paris. Instead of using phosphorus, Chancel elected to coat wooden stick with potassium chlorate, sulfur, sugar, rubber, and then dip that stick into the small asbestos bottle filled with sulfuric acid.

History of Matches and Lighters

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Enter your mobile number or email address below and we’ll send you a link to download the free Kindle Reading App. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer – no Kindle device required. To get the free app, enter your mobile phone number. A captivating exploration of the role in which Queen Victoria exerted most international power and influence: her role as matchmaking grandmother In the late nineteenth century, Queen Victoria had over thirty surviving grandchildren.

To maintain and increase power in Europe, she hoped to manoeuvre them into dynastic marriages. In her sights was royalty from across the world. Yet for all their seeming obedience, her grandchildren often had plans of their own, plans fuelled by strong wills and romantic hearts. Her matchmaking plans were only further complicated by their coinciding with tumultuous international upheavals; revolution and war were in the air and after her death, her most carefully laid plans fell to ruin.

Queen Victoria’s Matchmaking travels through the most glittering, decadent palaces of Russia and Europe, weaving in scandals, political machinations and family tensions, to enthralling effect.

Publishing Shakespeare

A captivating exploration of the role in which Queen Victoria exerted most international power and influence: her role as matchmaking grandmother. In the late nineteenth century, Queen Victoria had over thirty surviving grandchildren. To maintain and increase power in Europe, she hoped to manoeuvre them into dynastic marriages. In her sights was royalty from across the world.

made their mark on the sport, a participation that dates back to the late 19th century. Cameron Hammonds hand is raised following a Boxing match “​When you see the images of Lionel Rose, the wastage to make the.

It was a great read! I enjoyed the book completely I knew most of the information, but I didn’t check it out for that purpose. It was well done, she did her research and put it together in a very clever way! I enjoyed her style of writing immensely! Intriguing, comprehensive look at how Victoria and Albert’s ideas about influencing international politics through the strategic marriage of their descendants actually played out on the world stage. It is fairly mind-boggling to try and follow the romantic paths of so many children, grandchildren, and cousins, so many of them in the other royal families of Europe and with so many similar names.

This book does a good job of trying to isolate a selection of the key partnerships, telling the tale of how the partners got together or came apart, the overbearing influence of Queen Victoria, and the ultimate fate of each union. It is fascinating to see all of Victoria’s behind-the-scenes machinations to try and pair up each grandchild with the European royal that she found most suitable, and her extreme displeasure over love matches that did not serve to fulfill her ambitions.

A lot of interesting history is contained within these pages; where ultimately things never did quite work out as planned, often with disastrous results. For example, daughter Vicky’s marriage resulting in the birth and early rise of Kaiser Wilhelm II in Germany: Queen Victoria’s sense of dread and foreboding at granddaughter Alexandra’s marriage to Nicholas II of Russia, the unexpected death of Prince Albert’s son Eddy right before his marriage to Mary of Teck, with her subsequent betrothal to his brother, George.

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It has no fantastic characters, like the playing-card Queen of Alice in Wonderland; it doesn’t move with the slapstick speed of Punch and Judy. On the contrary, Gogol’s characters, the bourgeois of 19th century Russia, are fairly ordinary people; the humor of inept matchmaking and awkward courtship is less visual than verbal. Nevertheless the show–performed Monday at Children’s Hospital and weekends at Quincy House–speaks to the children in the audience.

He went on to invent the first friction match. Until the first half of the nineteenth century, the process by which fire was created was slow and laborious. Walker’s​.

Charlotte Lucas in Pride and Prejudice offers the most tough-minded and unsentimental analysis, counselling that Jane Bennet should secure her rich husband first and think about love only after they are married. She is not the only articulate cynic. Usage terms Public Domain. She is an unworldly year-old, but her heart is right. In the earlier novels of the 18th century, fathers often try to command their sons and daughters whom to marry. Manuscript of alternative last chapter of Persuasion , written in Marriage was a popular subject for spoof cartography in the 18th and 19th centuries.

And young means young. Lydia Bennet marries at 16 and her mother talks of her sister Jane attracting the attentions of a well-qualified suitor at the age of Catherine Morland becomes engaged at the age of That meant that she could be courted. In the conduct manual An Enquiry Into the Duties of the Female Sex , the clergyman Thomas Gisborne criticises mothers who try to secure wealth or status for their daughters through marriage. Jane Austen read An Enquiry in The men they marry are usually older than them, in some cases strikingly so.

Queen Victoria’s Matchmaking

Most working class women in Victorian England had no choice but to work in order to help support their families. They worked either in factories, or in domestic service for richer households or in family businesses. Many women also carried out home-based work such as finishing garments and shoes for factories, laundry, or preparation of snacks to sell in the market or streets.

This was in addition to their unpaid work at home which included cooking, cleaning, child care and often keeping small animals and growing vegetables and fruit to help feed their families. Women’s work was often not included within statistics on waged work in official records, altering our perspective on the work women undertook. Examine the data contained in the table which was collected from Wolverhampton during the census in

In the 19 century, something remarkable was happening in England— ill-​health in the late nineteenth century: the case of the match-making.

As long as people have entered into relationships, people have been matchmaking—you may even have had a go yourself! Britain’s early tribal groups arranged marriages as a strategic tool to ensure their inheritance of, and continued dominance over, land, wealth and status. The consent of the future bride and groom was of little to no importance to these matchmakers, and all of the arrangements were simply made on their behalf.

A page from Decretum Gratiani. Image via World Digital Library. This work would go on to inform the church’s stance on marriage throughout the 12th century. From here on, there would be more to marriage and matchmaking than just land and property. The first matchmaking agencies in Britain appeared in the s when parish vicars played a crucial role in matching their parishioners with a spouse from the same social class.

Matchmaking didn’t relinquish its ties to religion until , when the first non-religious dating agency opened its doors in London though the focus was still on matching clients within their own class. British literature of the time tells us a lot about public attitudes to matchmaking. Writers such as Jane Austen offered a biting, and often hilarious, social satire to send up the process in their novels. Matchmaking became a pastime for women who were already married, and often their sole occupation.

Mrs Bennet enjoyed a little meddling here, sending her eldest daughter out to her suitor’s home on horseback, “because it seems likely to rain; and then you must stay all night”.

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Matchmaking is the process of matching two or more people together, usually for the purpose of marriage , but the word is also used in the context of sporting events such as boxing, in business, in online video games and in pairing organ donors. In some cultures, the role of the matchmaker was and is quite professionalised. The Ashkenazi Jewish shadchan , or the Hindu astrologer , were often thought to be essential advisors and also helped in finding right spouses as they had links and a relation of good faith with the families.

Jan 18, · The long, slow, and heavy meals of the mid-nineteenth century had Hat Making How-To’s – Millinery Lessons from the Edwardian Era ‘s I also made a matching hat and that took 3 months of patiently hand creating.

Five years ago, I met with a matchmaker. I went in scornful. Like many of my progressive South Asian peers, I denounced arranged marriage as offensive and regressive. But when the matchmaker recited her lengthy questionnaire, I grasped, if just for a beat, why people did things this way. Do you believe in a higher power? No idea. Should your partner share your creative interests? Must read, though preferably not write, novels. Do you want children? Not particularly. The show has received sharp criticism — some well deserved — among progressive South Asians, including Dalit writers , for normalizing the casteist, sexist and colorist elements of Indian society.

It explores the fact that many Indian millennials and their diaspora kin still opt for match-made marriage. The show reveals conversations that take place behind closed doors, making desis confront our biases and assumptions, while inviting non-desis to better understand our culture.

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Halloween is a holiday celebrated each year on October 31, and Halloween will occur on Saturday, October The tradition originated with the ancient Celtic festival of Samhain , when people would light bonfires and wear costumes to ward off ghosts. Soon, All Saints Day incorporated some of the traditions of Samhain. The evening before was known as All Hallows Eve, and later Halloween. Over time, Halloween evolved into a day of activities like trick-or-treating, carving jack-o-lanterns, festive gatherings, donning costumes and eating treats.

Queen Victoria’s Matchmaking: The Royal Marriages that Shaped Europe increasingly anarchic) political environment of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

When William Shakespeare died in , only about half of his plays had ever been printed, in small one-play editions. Another 18 plays are known today only because they are included in the First Folio , the first collected edition of the plays. In , Nicholas Rowe became the first modern editor of Shakespeare’s plays, making the text more accessible through tools such as lists of characters and act and scene divisions. Editors in every age—including the present—have addressed a variety of questions, including how to make sense of conflicting early versions of the plays.

Other publishers have taken the text in new directions, from foreign-language editions to graphic novels. Primary sources: Shakespeare Documented Visit Shakespeare Documented to see primary-source materials documenting Shakespeare’s published plays and poems. This online resource of items from the Folger and other institutions brings together all known manuscript and print references to Shakespeare and his works in his lifetime and shortly thereafter.

In and , William Shakespeare, already established as a playwright, published two long poems, Venus and Adonis and Lucrece. The poems, which reflected the classical fashion of the time, were very successful. Both poems were originally published as quarto editions. Shakespeare’s sonnets were first published together in as a quarto, athough they were probably written much earlier.

The sonnets, far more popular today than the epic poems, are still published both individually and as a group.

Jukes & Goofs (early matchmaking beta)


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